1. Could economics, as a discipline, have come about without the Enlightenment? Explain in 500 words or less, with reference to economics as a rational study of human activity. (35 %)2. Sigmund Freud, in his 1930 essay Civilization and Its Discontents, argues that the sublimation of sexual desire leads to the mental energy required for advances in civiliza- tion: science, art, politics, etc. In particular, he writes,“Sublimation of instinct [including sexual instinct] is an especially conspicu- ous feature of cultural development; it is what makes it possible for higher psychical activities, scientific, artistic, or ideological, to play such an impor- tant part in civilized life… it is impossible to overlook the extent to which civilization is built up upon a renunciation of instinct…”HowwouldaneconomistphraseFreud’sargument,intermsofopportunitycosts?1 Might this explain the development of monogamous marriage as an institution?2 Explain in 500 words or less. (35 %)
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