Science Research Project 1


PROJECT TITLE (25 words or less) An analysis of sleep quality of Indian migrants living in Perth BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT (ABSTRACT) Summarise what you are going to do and how you are going to do it (maximum of 400 words). The description needs to be able to be understood by a person not familiar with your specific area of study. Sleep is essential in order to keep human body well. This report will analyse the sleep quality of Indian migrants living in Perth, and will be adapted from the study completed at Howard university in Washington in 2017,which showed that the sleep quality and sleep duration of Africans decreased after immigration in America (Obi, 2017). It has been shown that age, working hours and gender of migrants influences the sleep quality(Obi 2017) Therefore, this study will determine the relationship between these factors and sleep quality of Indian immigrants living in Perth. Sleep quality and sleep duration is associated with the increased risk of heart problems, diabetes, stroke and depression. The result can be used as interventions for good quality sleep. In this study, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) will be used which is valid and reliable tool to analyse the sleep quality. The data will be collected by social network site (Facebook – Indians in Perth), e – mails (to personal contacts) and snow ball technique. The questions will be divided into seven components (Subjective sleep quality, sleep duration, sleep latency, use of sleeping medication, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, daytime dysfunction) and each section will be rated from score 0 to 3. Standard values of global PSQI is 5, and if global PSQI more than 5 it represents poor sleep on the other hand if global PSQI is less than 5 it reveals good sleep quality. To determine the relationship between demographic factors and sleep quality SPSS will be used with the P value < 0.05. In this study, gender, marital status and working hours will be the independent variables and sleep quality will be the dependent variable. Difference between groups (i.e., gender, marital status) will be determined using chi square test. The result can provide information about significant factors, which decrease sleep quality and sleep duration of individuals and this may then be used to develop recommendations to improve the sleep quality of the individuals. PROJECT PURPOSE – BACKGROUND LITERATURE IDENTIFIES THE GAP This section outlines the project rationale or the key reasons for undertaking the project which is supported by the current evidence in the literature and the gap in the literature. (maximum of 500 words). Sleep is an essential human physiological need particularly for physical well-being without which the life of human beings is threatened (Zakeri et al., 2006). There is evidence that sleep may play an important role in maintaining healthy heart function (Zolfaghariet al., 2012) since a normal heart beats about 70-80 times in every minute and 60 beats during sleep. Sleep may be described as a natural process that takes place in animals as well as human beings, which involves behavioural and physiological processes (Susan & Patricia, 2014). Sleeping less than 7 hours (short sleep duration) is associated with high mortality rate and risk for developing adverse cardiovascular, endocrine, immune or nervous system outcomes like obesity, diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, mood or anxiety disorders plus substance abuse (Chaput et al., 2007; Forquer et al., 2008; Knutson et al., 2009; Korenet al., 2002; Kripke et al., 2002). It is well established that demographic, environmental plus illness-related factors may be implicated in sleep disturbances (Redeker & Stein, 2006). Various factors such as physical and individual factors like age, sex, medication, body mass index (BMI) and socioeconomic status as well as marital status and educational level, race, smoking, and physical disorders influence the sleep quality and quantity (Mohamadi & Shahparian, 2013). By contrast, some studies have reported inconsistent results on factors influencing sleep quality. A case in point reported that common sleep complaints among older adults occurred following their comorbidities rather than aging per se (Foley et al., 2004). According to Hale and Do (2007), there are few studies that have focused on differences in sleep with race unlike health disparities. Some scholars have focused on sleep duration, continuity as well as subjective quality among African American (AA) and Caucasian American (CA) (Durrence&Lichstein, 2006). Other sources demonstrated stronger but consistent differences in sleep architecture among CA and AA (Mezick, et al., 2008; Thomas et al., 2006). However, these studies reported contradictory findings on the influence of socio-demographic factors. Other sleep-related research areas that have elicited little interest but relevant for providing insight on ethnic differences are site-related effect on sleep (Stepnowsky et al., 2003), sleep accessories like beds, blankets or pillow and how they affect people’s sleep quality (Bader &Engdal, 2000; Lee & Park, 2006) and genetic-related effect on sleep (Hamet& Tremblay, 2006). While much is published about subjective sleep quality as well as sleep disturbances among the general population, only few studies have focused on sleep and ethnicity, including different patterns and sleep quality across ethnic groups. PROJECT AIM & OBJECTIVES – RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES (where applicable) State the overall aim of the study. List the objectives of the project which are the specific details about what you hope to achieve such as an observable change in knowledge or behaviour (3-4 at most). State the specific research question(s) and associated hypotheses (if applicable) that will be tested. Research Aim This study aims to determine the impact of factors (age, gender, marital status, occupational status, working hours)on sleep quality among Indian immigrants in Perth. Specific objectives a)To evaluate sleep quality (good or poor) amongst Indian immigrants in Perth. b)To identify possible factors that may influencing the sleep patterns of Indian immigrants in Perth. c)To provide the recommendations for improving sleep quality. Research Questions a)What is the quality of sleep of Indian immigrants in Perth? b)Is there a relationship between age,working hours and sleeping quality of Indian immigrants in Perth? c)Is there a difference in sleep quality due to demographic factors (gender, marital status, occupational status) in Indian immigrants living in Perth?

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