Select two policy changes that occurred as a result of Katrina.
On 4 October 2006, President George W. Bush signed the Post Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act into law. This law required the President to establish 1) a national preparedness goal, which should be revised and updated as necessary to “ensure the nation’s ability to prevent, respond to, recover from and mitigate disasters.” It should be consistent with the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the National Response Plan (NRP, and 2) to install a national preparedness system. This is accomplished through the Administrator at the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and must include the following elements: targeted capabilities and preparedness priorities, equipment and training standards, exercises, comprehensive assessments, remedial action management program, (federal) response capability inventory, reporting requirements and national preparedness. Additionally, the Post Katrina Reform Act required the President to ensure that agencies with responsibilities to the National Response Plan can meet the following requirements:
Meet and execute the operational duties of the national preparedness goal.
Comply with the National Incident Management System.
Develop a training and response plan for emergency personnel.
Develop operational strategies and capabilities for a coordinated all-hazard response.
Title VI of the Robert T. Stafford Act Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act authorizes FEMA to issue grants to states to provide a system of emergency preparedness to protect life and property from natural hazards. The Post Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act amends this legislation by requiring that awards granted to states are based if the state’s plan has a catastrophic incident annex and whether or not it is consistent with the NPG, NIMS, and other policies. The Post Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act also mandates that states receiving preparedness assistance must report their preparedness levels within fifteen months and annually after that. Two additional grant programs were authorized by the Post Katrina Reform Act. These two programs; Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) and Homeland Security Grant Program (HSGP) authorized the Department of Homeland Security to allow the state and localities to utilize funding to address evacuation planning and programs, as they are an integral part of readiness. In addition to funding, the act authorizes the FEMA to establish a standards and requirements for evacuations as well as assistance.
How have these policy changes influenced, positively or negatively, hurricanes that followed?
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