Biostatistics in healthcare


Immune Responses Abnormal immune responses can trigger a range of autoimmune diseases in which an individuals immune system is attacking normal tissues in the body. Well-known examples of autoimmune diseases are type 1 diabetes mellitus lupus and multiple sclerosis. Ideally one would like to harness the immune system to attack abnormal substances or tissues like cancer while sparing the normal (unaffected) tissue. Many tumor cells produce antigens (proteins) that theoretically ought to trigger an immune response: that is ones immune system ought to recognize cancer cells as somehow foreign or abnormal and thereafter eliminate these cells from the body. The field of cancer immunotherapy is actively pursuing this study. Tumor antigens may also be useful for diagnostic tests; high levels of tumor antigens could be taken as markers or indicators of cancer. In this assignment you will be examining levels of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) as determined from immunoassays (i.e. biochemical tests that measure the concentrations of the tumor-associated antigens in serum samples).
BONUS. In the above we pooled all cases together. Summarize whether you think this is legitimate or whether the levels of any of the TAAs appear to differ significantly between the cases from China and the cases from Korea. Provide evidence in support of your conclusion.

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