Clause Types (indpendent,dependent,adj, restricted), Setence Types(simple, compound,complex)

Week 4, Reading Section 1: Clause TypesBefore beginning Reading Section 2 (a study of sentence types in English), it’s a good idea to define the term clause and to learn to recognize the two types of clauses:A clause is a group of words—featuring a subject and verb—that function together as part or all of a sentence.The two types of clauses are independent and dependent:• An independent clause can stand alone as a complete sentence.• Example: A hurricane came ashore last summer.• A dependent clause cannot stand alone as a complete sentence but joins with an independent clause to form a sentence.• Example: When a hurricane came ashore last summer, (dependent clause) part of the beach washed away. (independent clause)An independent clause never functions as a part of speech but carries the main (or complete) thought of the sentence—the main statement–and is made up of words, phrases, and even, sometimes, dependent clauses. For example: “The mechanic who fixed my car is a true genius” (mechanic is a word, true genius is a phrase, and who fixed my car is a dependent–adjective–clause).A dependent clause, however, always functions as a part of speech—the whole clause acting as a noun, adjective, or adverb. You can replace almost any dependent noun, adjective, or adverb clause with a single-word noun, adjective, or adverb:• [When + he saw her,] he went home.• [Then,] he went home.• He wanted the candy cane, [which + looked delicious].• He wanted the [delicious] candy cane.• He knew [that + he was a success].• He knew [success].Adjective clausesLike other adjectives, modify nouns or pronouns. They are different from one-word adjectives, however, in that they follow the noun or pronoun they modify rather than precede it. They can sometimes be difficult to find because they can actually interrupt the subject and verb:• John, [who + has eaten nothing for days], looks pale.The main clause of the sentence is this:• John + looks + pale.Adjective Clause SubordinatorsMost adjective clauses are introduced by one the following relative pronouns:• which• whichever• who• whose• whoever • whomever• that• whatever• where• whereverNote that which replaces only nonhuman nouns, while who (and its variants) replaces human nouns, as may that in certain generalized instances only:• The dog, which was frustrated, barked.• The girl, who was frustrated, growled.• The farmers that lost their crops this year may give up farming.Whose replaces only possessive nouns:• John’s car is gone.• John, whose car is gone, is freaking out.Restrictive and Nonrestrictive ClausesAdjective and, occasionally, adverb clauses can be classified as restrictive or nonrestrictive and are typically noticeable by their punctuation. Here is an example of adjective clauses in which the first is restrictive, the second nonrestrictive:• The cat [that ate the lasagna] is going out now.• My cat, [which ate the lasagna], is going out now.You will notice two differences. The first is the change of relative pronoun (that to which). The second is the addition of a pair of commas to enclose the nonrestrictive clause. But there is a subtle difference in meaning here as well.The first sentence refers to the cat, a particular cat—one of several–the one that ate the lasagna (rather than the one that ate the cheesecake or clawed the living room curtains). In other words, we are restricting the reference to a certain member (or it could be members) of a group; in this instance, it is a certain lasagna-eating cat to which we are referring. Commas do not enclose a restricted element.In the second sentence, because the cat is referred to as “[m]y cat” its identity is established; we know which cat is going out. The clause begins with which and is set off with commas, so it isn’t necessary for the cat’s identity to be further known; the author is referring to her or his own cat, who is going out. Incidentally, we’re told that the cat ate the lasagna. The clause which ate the lasagna is a nonrestrictive clause; notice that with the nonrestrictive clause, because the cat has already been identified as one-of-a kind (my cat), the speaker or writer needn’t further identify the cat; one could just as easily say:• The cat ate the lasagna and is going out now.But you couldn’t do this with the restrictive clause because it is essential to define which cat you mean. Sometimes, handbooks will describe these clauses as essential (restrictive) and nonessential (nonrestrictive) elements.It has become a convention in formal English to use that with restrictive and which with nonrestrictive elements.• The cat that was purring steadily came over to me.• The cat, which was purring steadily, came over to me.Who and which can begin either restrictive or nonrestrictive clauses, so using the that test with them and other subordinators can help you determine which clauses are restrictive and which are nonrestrictive.Simply put, in formal English, commas should enclose nonrestrictive clauses but should not enclose restrictive clauses.Adverb clauses function like other adverbs, typically answering the questions where, when, how, and why. Like one-word adverbs, they tend to move more freely in a sentence than do other types clauses (adjective or noun). They are the most common of all the dependent clauses and probably the easiest clauses to find. They are also the most versatile. Adverb clauses usually modify verbs but, like other adverbs, can modify adjectives, other adverbs, or the whole sentence or main clause.When you are trying to determine what kind of dependent clause is confronting you, it is often easiest to rule out noun and adjective clauses. If the dependent clause clearly isn’t functioning in one of these two ways, it is certainly an adverb.Adverb clausesAn adverb clause usually begins with one of the following subordinating conjunctions. Note that many are phrasal (having two or more words):• after• although• as• as far as• as if• as soon as• as though• because• before• even if• even though • if• inasmuch as• in case that• insofar as• lest• no matter how• once• provided that• since• so that• supposing that • than• though• till• unless• until• when• whenever• where• wherever• whether• whileAdverb clauses do not begin with relative pronouns (that, which, who, etc.).If adverb clauses come at the beginning of the sentence, they are usually followed by a comma. Those placed at the end of the sentence (following an independent clause), however, generally do not have a comma in front of them.• When we arrived, the party was over.• The party was over when we arrived.Noun clausesLike other nouns, noun clauses function as subjects, objects, complements, or appositives within an independent or a dependent clause (the terms complement and appositive will be defined in material to follow).• [How you + did that] is beyond me. (subject)• I don’t know [how you + did that]. (direct object)• That is [how you + did that]. (complement)• That trick, [how you + did that], should make your fortune. (appositive)Usually the following subordinators introduce noun clauses:relativepronouns subordinatingconjunctionsthat howwhat how oftenwhich whywho whenwhoever wherewhomever whetherwhosoever whomsoeverNoun Clauses and Matrix ClausesWhereas adjective and adverb clauses modify elements within other clauses, a noun clause actually becomes part of the other clause. An independent clause with a dependent noun clause embedded in it is called a matrix clause. Remember, though, that every independent clause within which a dependent clause appears is not a matrix clause; adjective and/or adverb clauses appear within independent clauses, but only the noun dependent clause within an independent clause causes it to be called a matrix clause.If you try to remove a noun clause from an independent clause, you will often find that the sentence no longer makes sense because the matrix clause will have lost a key element:• [That he is an idiot] is obvious to me. (matrix clause makes sense with noun clause as subject)• Is obvious to me. (not a matrix clause; it makes no sense with loss of the noun clause as subject)A good way of testing for a noun clause is to see—if after removal of adjective and adverb clauses–the sentence still makes sense:• The cat, which yowled incessantly, was driving her crazy.• The cat was driving her crazy. (adjective clause removed)• When the cat yowled, everyone in the neighborhood groaned.• Everyone in the neighborhood groaned. (adverb clause removed)That ClausesOf all the subordinators, that is most versatile and most often used. We have previously run into that as a pronoun or a determiner:• I knew that.But now we see that functioning as a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun subordinator. When that introduces a noun clause, it can do so only as a subordinating conjunction:• I knew [that he was brilliant].But that can function as either a subordinating conjunction or a subordinating relative pronoun in adjective clauses:• The one that you like is gone.• The one that bit you is gone.Note that relative pronoun subordinators function both as pronoun subjects of the dependent clause and subordinators marking the clause as dependent!That DeletionCommonly, the that in noun and adjective clauses is omitted:• I knew [that he was brilliant].• I knew he was brilliant.• The one [that you like is gone].• The one you like is gone.We call this effect (quite practically) a “that deletion.” Notice that this effect is practical only when that is a subordinating conjunction—never when it is both subordinating and acting as a relative pronoun in the dependent clause.If the that clause is functioning as the subject of the matrix clause, you cannot delete the that:• That he is an idiot is obvious to me. (makes sense)• He is an idiot is obvious to me. (does not make sense)When you are hunting for dependent clauses in a sentence, it is safest to look for subjects and their verbs first and then find the subordinator. If you cannot find one, try putting in a that right before the subject. You should be able to determine whether or not it fits.Wh– ClausesIf you look back over the lists of subordinators for dependent clauses, you will see a lot of words beginning with wh–. Clauses using these subordinators are called wh–clauses. Like that clauses, wh– clauses can act as nouns or adjectives; however, they can act as adverbs as well.As noun clauses, wh– clauses can function in the usual way that noun clauses function:• [Whoever ate the candy] had better confess! (subject)• I know [who ate the candy]. (direct object)• The question is [whether you ate the candy]. (complement–notice that the verb is “is”)In these noun clauses, the wh– words function as indefinite relative pronouns as well as subordinators, just as that does.Elliptical clauses are clauses in which the subject or verb is understood rather than actually stated, for example:• Children put a pulled tooth under their pillows for the tooth fairy to come while [they are] sleeping.Elliptical clauses are usually composed of one or both of these two elements:• a relative pronoun subject (while)• a subject and a form of be or a previously stated verb (they are)Examples of elliptical clauses:• My tooth is worth more than yours [is].• The tooth fairy gave me more money than [she gave] you.• Some tooth fairies are cheap; others [are] generous.Review and refer back to Week 4 Reading: Clause Types.Discussion 1Directions: Create 9 unique sentences, 3 of each of the following kinds of dependent clauses: Adjective, Adverb, and Noun. Each sentence may be brief, but each must correctly use the type of clause asked for. Underline the clause in each sentence, and identify its type or grammatical function in parentheses after the sentence.Follow this sample template for your post:I. Adjective Clauses – at least one must be restrictive, and one must be non-restrictive1. The cat that ate the lasagna is going out now. (restrictive)2. My cat, which ate the lasagna, is going out now. (non-restrictive)3. The cat that was purring steadily came over to me. (restrictive)II. Adverb Clauses – bracket the dependent clause, and underline the subordinating conjunction1. [When we arrived], the party was over.2. The party was fun, [even though Joe was not there].3. The party lasted all night, [till the break of dawn].III. Noun Clauses – do not use a noun clause function more than once. Noun clause functions include subject, object, complement, or appositive.1. How you did that is beyond me. (subject)2. I don’t know how you did that. (object)3. That is how you did that. (complement)Do not reference outside sources; create your own sentences.Week 4, Reading Section 2: Sentence TypesSome people say that making sentences is like playing with Legos because sentence-making requires assembly of various pieces, just like sticking together the different kinds of Lego pieces. Looking at the four types of sentences (listed below), it is easy to understand this notion of piecing together language parts (clauses) to create a sentence:• Simple (one independent clause)Example: Our trip was long.• Compound (more than one independent clause):Example: Our trip had been long, but we were not tired.• Complex (one independent clause and at least one dependent clause):Example: Although our trip had been long, we were not tired.• Compound-complex (more than one independent clause and at least one dependent clause):Example: Although our trip had been long, we were not tired, nor were we sleepy.Remembering Week Three’s mention of coordinating conjunctions (“Coordinating conjunctions connect similar structures only: a word with another word, a phrase with another phrase, or a clause with another clause. The prefix “co-” means equal”), you will recognize two of the seven (FANBOYS – for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) coordinating conjunctions (underlined) in the compound and compound-complex sentences shown above:Compound: Our trip was long, but we were not tired.Compound-complex: Although our trip had been long, we were not tired, nor were we sleepy.Reviewing the list of subordinate conjunctions in this week’s Reading Section 1, you will notice a subordinate conjunction in two of the four sentence types (underlined):• Complex: Although our trip had been long, we were not tired.• Compound-complex: Although our trip had been long, we were not tired, nor were we sleepy.You might try remembering these sentence types by this method:Compound = two or more of the same type (independent clauses, not a mix of the two)Complex = diverse types (dependent and independent clauses mixed)Surprisingly so, perhaps, coordination and subordination are two of only three ways by which clauses can be combined; the third way is another type of coordination: the semicolon, which looks like this:Often the semicolon is confused with the colon, which looks like this:Semicolon Colon; :In Week Seven we will cover punctuation thoroughly; here, though, you can learn that the semicolon connects grammatical elements that are equal, such as independent clauses (or a series of other like items) whereas the colon signals something to follow, such as a list of items or a reason stated.Note that length of a sentence does not necessarily correlate to its degree of compoundedness or complexity; in other words, a compound-complex sentence may be shorter than a simple sentence that includes modifiers:Compound-complex: When rain finally came, the water jars were empty, and the rain barrels were dusty. (15 words)Simple: The rain finally came just in time to save us and all of the other families and the livestock and crops from dying in misery of thirst. (27 words)Another type of conjunction (the conjunctive adverb) often appears in compound sentences. In these instances, the coordinating conjunction that would usually join independent clauses is omitted; the clauses are joined by a semicolon. This construction is effective whenever the clauses are closely related in content; the conjunctive adverb signals to the listener or reader the close nature of the connection between the clauses, for example:The clock had struck midnight; however, none of the guests had arrived.• The conjunctive adverb however indicates contrast, the unexpected.Decorations for the party were elaborate; moreover, a private chef was on hand to prepare exquisite dishes.• The conjunctive adverb moreover indicates “in addition” or “furthermore.”Notice that a comma follows the conjunctive adverb in this construction. Here is a list of conjunctive adverbs, which are also known by the name transitional expressions, for they help the listener or reader transition from one idea to another:accordingly furthermore moreover similarlyalso hence namely stillanyway however nevertheless thenbesides incidentally next thereaftercertainly indeed nonetheless thereforeconsequently instead now thusfinally likewise otherwise undoubtedlyNote that a conjunctive adverb may also appear as an interrupter within a sentence, and often does so, as seen here:Neighbors in the exclusive community expected, therefore, not to be bothered by another invitation issued by the new couple.• The subjunctive adverb therefore indicates the notion “consequently.”Discussion 2:Write an original sentence in each of the four types and label each by type.Then write a paragraph of at least six sentences explaining how this week’s instruction about sentence types clarifies for you some features of writing that might have proven confusing to you beforehand. Be specific, please.Do not reference outside sources; use your own words.Once your paragraph has been posted, read classmates’ posts and respond to comment about types of differences you have noted between their post and yours.

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