Assignment Paper | homework crew

FINAL SHORT ANSWER/RESPONSEWe have covered ‘special topics’ in victimization in this last third of our class time. I have laid out a number of questions (with very specific prompts) below.● Please pick 3 of the 4 SHORT ANSWER questions (make sure you answer all of the prompts for each question)● Please read the attached article and respond to the RESPONSE question (Q5, 3-4 paragraphs)SHORT ANSWER the following 3 of the following 4 questions1. Victims’ rights in the United Statesa. What rights do victims of felony crimes have according to federal law? (List and explain two or three)b. What rights do victims tend to have at the state level – either through state code or through the state constitution? (List and explain at least three common rights, some may overlap with (your answer to Qa above on federal law above)).c. More specifically, we discussed which of these rights were practical and which were more symbolic. Look at the example I provided from the VA state rights for victims I provided in our lecture (or any other state you choose from the link I provided), and explain which rights are truly meaningful (that is, acted upon) and which are more symbolic (that is, the prosecutor, for example, may listen to the victim).d. Do victims have ‘standing’ before the court in the criminal cases brought against their perpetrators? By this we mean, can they appeal a court decision? Can they file motions? Do they have due process protections?e. Why are/were Victim Impact Statements considered problematic by the court? Consider the pros and cons we looked at in the court cases that raised the issues.2. Hate speech/groups/crimea. Is hate speech protected by the 1st Amendment of the Constitution? Explain when it is protected, and some circumstances in which the speech is not protected. About three sentences – you might look to exceptions to free speech to answer this.b. What is ‘dangerous speech,’ and could it be argued that we have had some dangerous speech in the United States in very recent years? Look to the work by Benesch that I reviewed in lecture.c. Looking at the map link I provided from the Southern Poverty Law Center, about how many hate groups are active in the United States and identify and describe at least two types of hate groups that are active in the DC/VA metro area. (You may bullet point these.)d. Why is hate crime more harmful than similar crimes that are not driven by bias? See slides that review this along with readings.e. Provide a legal definition of hate crime, and identify what minority groups may/may not be included (depending on the state – you can see the state map I provided for variations).f. What do civil rights protections in housing codes (or education, labor, etc) have to do with hate crime charging? Consider current/recent cases from the US DOJ Civil Rights Division link in answering).3. Human traffickinga. What is human trafficking – in the United States (provide a definition from our lecture/reading)?b. What risk factors do we see for young victims of sex trafficking in the United States? (List five risk factors and briefly describe.)c. Why is being a runaway (or homeless/displaced) such a big part of sex trafficking of victims in the United States?d. Why is it so hard for victims to leave the ‘life’ of trafficking, even when they get support and resources?4. Transmission across generations [NOTE: if you missed class, all links may be found in my slides and you can hear and see the AV materials on the recording of our lecture from that day)a. We listened to a podcast in which a young woman (Destiny Mabry) describes generations of intimate partner violence for the women in her family. The story comes to a devastating conclusion with the murder of her sister and her sister’s two children at the hands of her sister’s husband. We discussed possible explanations (NOTE: we did this without any data and without all of the details of the case. Many classmates focused on ‘social learning’ and how this is a possible means of transmission.i. What do we mean by ‘social learning’ in this case as it relates to intergenerational transmission of risk?ii. Are there other types of victimization that you can think of where social learning transmits important information about risk tolerance/expectations (as was the case in this story)?b. We discussed your reading on prenatal maternal stress, fetal brain connectivity, and gestational age at birth.i. What do the authors conclude (provide two main conclusions).ii. What could these findings mean for the potential development of “low self-control” and subsequent victimization risk?c. We watched a video about a professor who studies how trauma can impact us at the cellular level – or more specifically, the epigenetics of trauma.i. What does she mean when she uses the term “epigenetics of trauma?”ii. How can her findings [for this purpose: that mice with higher levels of the neurotransmitter oxytocin were more likely to display nurturing/parental behaviors] be applied to the ability for people – particularly those who live among chronic stress/or with ongoing trauma – to parent effectively?iii. Explain how her study (on mice) on the smell of almonds coupled with a negative stimulus (electric shock) relates to what we have reviewed about the lasting effects of trauma.5. MUST ANSWER: LONG ANSWERWe discussed and read about how the media covers victims of crime in terms of:● The types of victims likely to get covered in the media,● The amount of coverage different types of victims get,● The business model that creates the motivation for major imbalances in how the public sees victims of crime,● How race and racial stereotypes are perpetuated (of both victims and offenders), and● how we (as a public) assign differing values and assumptions about victimso based on the amount and type of coverage they received▪ (for instance, the long-standing narrative about urban crime seeping into suburban areas,▪ and the very tired and incorrect narrative that white women are especially vulnerable victims for murder or sexual harm by black offenders).Read that attached story from the Washington Post, “Preying on those unlikely to be missed: Samuel Little, America’s most deadliest serial killer, went undetected for over 40 years.” This is part of the “Indifferent Justice” series.For your long answer, examine whether and how the case in the article relates to each bullet point above as you read the story.

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