2- Literature Search Development Form



Step 1 – Create a research question. Avoid yes/no questions. Consider a question that starts with how, why, what, or which.Research Question Powassan virus is a vector borne disease that can be lethal to humans. The transmission process is very similar to that of Lyme disease in North America. Emerging infections that are Vector borne/ Zoonotic diseases are a threat to our public health infrastructure. Vector surveillance can be a useful tool to assess risk in certain populations. What biological indicators can we use to monitor risks of the Powassan virus, and how much of a risk is the Powassan virus to our society ( i.e. blood supply)?Allison’s comments: You have two questions. Which one are you most interested in? Based on the PICO elements, it appears to be the first one.Step 2: Identify PICO elementsPopulation/Problem People at risk for Powassan Virus – Powassan VirusIntervention/Exposure ID infected ticks – Surveillance?Comparison ID noninfected ticks Non surveillance?Outcome Assessment of Emergence of Powassan and related viruses – Assessment of Powassan as an emerging virusAllison’s comments: If I understand your intent, I would suggest the PICO to be what is highlighted in yellow. The issue/problem is Powassan, your interested in surveillance, and assessing Powassan as an emerging issue. If that is not what you meant, by all means let me know!Step 3: Identify main concepts for searching – the main concepts may or may not mirror your PICO elements. You may need more than one concept to represent a PICO element. You don’t always have to search each of the PICO elements in your search, as they may be obvious.Main Concept #1 Emerging Arbovirus in America – Are you looking at all arbovirus in America or only Powassan virus?Main Concept #2 Infection risk factors –Do you mean biological indicators or vector surveillance?Main Concept #3 (if applicable) Impacts of Emerging Arbovirus infections in AmericaMain Concept #4 (if applicable) Vector SurveillanceAllison’s comments: you may not need concepts 3 or 4, or maybe concept 4 becomes part of concept 2. I’m not following your translation from PICO to the concepts.Database 1 (Required)Name of Database: PUBMEDDoes this database have controlled vocabulary? Place an ‘x’ after the correct option. Yes X NoStep 4: Identify keywords and controlled vocabulary of the database you want to search and put them into OR’d search strings (Ex: Concept 1: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2[Mesh] OR “Type 2 diabetes” OR “diabetes type 2” OR “Diabetes Mellitus Type 2”)Database #1 Concept Chart – Controlled Vocabulary, if applicable, and KeywordsConcept 1Emerging and re emerging ((disease, emerging communicable[MeSH Terms]) AND (communicable diseases, re-emerging[MeSH Terms])) AND (powassan virus[MeSH Terms])Concept 2 (powassan virus[MeSH Terms]) AND (northeastern united states[MeSH Terms]) (powassan virus[MeSH Terms]) AND (america[MeSH Terms])Concept 3 (if applicable)Allison’s comments Step 4 is for you to start identifying keywords and controlled vocabulary/database subject terms for each concept. You’re not putting the searches together yet. See the example in Step 4 above.None of the databases do geographic limitations well. If you say America you miss if it says New Jersey or Tampa. However, you could use the MeSH terms for North America. Mid-Atlantic Region, or New England, etc. However, you would have to note that a limitation of the search is that you recognized you’re missing the citations that are not indexed, unless you also include all the states you’re interested in at title/abstract terms. Even then, you’ll miss any cities that get mentioned instead of states.The highlighted terms are either the wrong Boolean operator or terms you labeled as MeSH but are not.Step 5: Assemble the search by combining the search strings above into the search strategies. The first search is never your final search.• You may give me each step of your search process or only your first and last searches (just tell me what you’re recording!)• Please include the number of results retrieved.• The notes are for you to record your thought process as you go along, and to record why you made search changes.• Include any limits and filters used. Justify any date limits.• I will grade the last search.Database #1 Search Strategy (and revisions). Add/delete lines as needed.No. Search Strategy No. of Results Thought Process & Notes1(powassan virus[MeSH Terms]) AND (northeastern united states[MeSH Terms]) 9 I am looking for as many articles on Powassan Virus in NE US.2 (powassan virus[MeSH Terms]) AND (america[MeSH Terms]) 41 I cast a wider net by using controlled vocabulary term for US = America.3 ((disease, emerging communicable[MeSH Terms]) AND (communicable diseases, re emerging[MeSH Terms])) AND (powassan virus[MeSH Terms]) 13 I tried using different vocabulary terms of related issues.4 Tick surveillance in the North America for the risk of emerging diseases 120 I reversed my thinking and started looking at the vectors5 vector surveillance for Powassan virus 210 I was more successful with focusing on Vector monitoringAllison’s comments:Search 5 is not acceptable. You need to develop the search with MeSH terms and keywords, not type in a phrase and let PubMed do the work for you. You started off well but what other terms might you use for Powassan virus (which is NOT a Mesh term). Your question has to do with surveillance and monitoring risk. Where is that in your search?Database 2 – (Required) – Repeat Steps 4 & 5Name of Database: WEB OF SCIENCEDoes this database have controlled vocabulary? Place an ‘x’ after the correct option. Yes NoXStep 4: Identify keywords and controlled vocabulary of the database you want to search and put them into OR’d search strings (Ex: Concept 1: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2[Mesh] OR “Type 2 diabetes” OR “diabetes type 2” OR “Diabetes Mellitus Type 2”)Database #2 Concept Chart – Controlled Vocabulary, if applicable, and KeywordsConcept 1 Powassan Virus in USConcept 2 Powassan Virus in USAllison’s comments Each concept is separate from the other concepts. Go back to Step 3 where you identified the concepts. Now, what are the terms you would use to search each concept. That’s what belongs in Step 4.Concept 4 (if applicable)Step 5: Assemble the search by combining the search strings above into the search strategies. The first search is never your final search.• You may give me each step of your search process or only your first and last searches (just tell me what you’re recording!)• Please include the number of results retrieved.• The notes are for you to record your thought process as you go along, and to record why you made search changes.• Include any limits and filters used. Justify any date limits.• I will grade the last search.Database #2 Search Strategy (and revisions). Add/delete lines as needed.No. Search Strategy No. of Results Thought Process & Notes1 Powassan Virus in the US 8 I restricted the search 2011-01-01 – 2021- 11-012 Powassan Virus in the US 218 I restricted the search 2000-01-01 – 2021-11-01. I cast a wider net because global travel expanded in early 2000’s and we would seen an increase in Emerging infections.Allison’s comments: This is not a search! Where are your keywords? Searching your question as phrase is not doctoral level work.

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